Skip to content

Pandemic Patterns: The Cultural Semiotics of Medical Crisis

Carmen Birkle, Birgit Däwes, Ingrid Gessner, Marc Priewe

Pages 403 - 427



This publication is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives 4.0.

Key Words:pandemic fiction, historical overview, COVID-19, American literature

1 Agamben, Giorgio. State of Exception. Trans. Kevin Attell. Chicago, IL: U of Chicago P, 2005. Print.

2 Akee, Randall, Stephanie R. Carroll, and Chandra Ford, eds. COVID-19 and Indigenous Peoples. Spec. issue of American Indian Culture and Research Journal 44.2 (2020). Print.

3 Allen, Richard, and Absalom Jones. A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People, during the Late Awful Calamity in Philadelphia, in the Year 1793. Philadelphia: William W. Woodward, 1794. Print.

4 Altschuler, Sari, and Priscilla Wald. “COVID-19: Pandemic Reading.” COVID-19 Forum: Pandemic Reading. Spec. issue of American Literature 92.4 (2020): 681-88. Print.

5 Álvarez, Julia. Saving the World. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 2006. Print.

6 Armitage, John, and Mark Featherstone, eds. Viral Culture. Spec. issue of Cultural Politics 17.1 (2021). Print.

7 Barry, John M. “Opinion: What We Can Learn from How the 1918 Pandemic Ended.” New York Times. The New York Times Company, 31 Jan. 2022. Web. 25 Aug. 2022.

8 ---. “The Site of Origin of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Its Public Health Implications.” Journal of Transnational Medicine 2.1 (2004): 3. Print.

9 ---. The Great Influenza. New York: Penguin, 2005. Print.

10 Bauer, Jutta. Corona Diaries. Hamburg: Kibitz, 2021. Print.

11 Bell, Andrew McIlwaine. Mosquito Soldiers: Malaria, Yellow Fever, and the Course of the American Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2010. Print.

12 Bradshaw, Wesley. Angel Agnes, or, The Heroine of the Yellow Fever Plague in Shreveport. Philadelphia, PA: Old Franklin, 1873. Print.

13 ---. Mattie Stephenson: The Sweet Young Martyr of Memphis. Philadelphia, PA: Old Franklin, 1873. Print.

14 Brady, Benjamin R., and Howard M. Bahr. “The Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1920 among the Navajos: Marginality, Mortality, and the Implications of Some Neglected Eyewitness Accounts.” American Indian Quarterly 38.4 (2014): 459-91. Print.

15 Brands, Hal, and Francis J. Gavin, eds. COVID-19 and World Order: The Future of Conflict, Competition, and Cooperation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 2020. Print.

16 Brandt, Allan M. “Behavior, Disease, and Health in the Twentieth-Century United States: The Moral Valence of Individual Risk.” Morality and Health. Ed. Allan M. Brandt and Paul Rozin. New York: Routledge, 1997. 53-78. Print.

17 Breslin, Tony. Lessons from Lockdown: The Educational Legacy of COVID-19. New York: Routledge, 2021. Print.

18 Brown, Charles Brockden. Arthur Mervyn, or, Memoirs of the Year 1793, with Related Texts. Ed. Philip Barnard and Stephen Shapiro. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2008. Print.

19 Burdock, Maureen. “The Right to Breathe.” COVID Chronicles: A Comics Anthology. Ed. Kendra Boileau and Rich Johnson. University Park, PA: Graphic Mundi, 2021. 203-10. Print.

20 Cable, George Washington. Dr. Sevier. Boston, MA: James Osgood., 1885. Print.

21 ---. The Grandissimes: A Story of Creole Life. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1887. Print.

22 ---. “Tite Poulette.” Old Creole Days. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1883. 213-43. Print

23 Carey, Mathew. A Short Account of the Malignant Fever, Lately Prevalent in Philadelphia: With a Statement of the Proceedings That Took Place on the Subject in Different Parts of the United States. To Which Are Added, Accounts of the Plague in London and Marseilles; and a List of the Dead, from August 1, to the Middle of December, 1793. 4th ed., improved. Philadelphia, PA: Printed by the Author, 1794. Early American Imprints 1st Ser. No. 26737. Harvard Library. Web. 29 Sept. 2022.

24 Chan, Roy Y., Krishna Bista, and Ryan M. Allen, eds. Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education during COVID-19. New York: Routledge, 2021. Print.

25 Cooper, James Fenimore. Jack Tier, or, The Florida Reef. New York: W. A. Townsend, 1860. Print.

26 Cronin, Justin. “A Zombie Novel for Our Virus-Stricken Times.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 9 July 2020. Web. 11 Sept. 2022.

27 Crosby, Alfred W. America’s Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. Print.

28 Davis, M. E. M. The Queen’s Garden. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin, 1900. Print.

29 Däwes, Birgit. “Molecular Mimicry, Realism, and the Collective Memory of Pandemics: Narrative Strategies of COVID-19 Fiction.” Narrating Communities in Times of Pandemic. Spec. issue of Diegesis 11.1 (2022). Web. 29 Oct. 2022.

30 Donoghue, Emma. The Pull of the Stars. New York: Little, Brown, 2020. Print.

31 Dorn, Thea. Trost: Briefe an Max. München: Penguin, 2021. Print.

32 Doyle, Shane. “Pandemics and Soft Power: HIV / AIDS and Uganda on the Global Stage.” Journal of Global History 15.3 (2020): 478-92. JSTOR. Web. 13 Nov. 2020.

33 Erdrich, Louise. The Sentence. New York: Little, Brown 2021. Print.

34 Erni, John Nguyet, and Ted Striphas, eds. The Cultural Politics of COVID-19. Special issue of Cultural Studies 35.2-3 (2021). Print.

35 Fang, Fang. Wuhan Diary: Dispatches from a Quarantined City. Trans. Michael Berry. New York: HarperCollins, 2020. Print.

36 Feghali, Zalfa, et al., eds. “Roundtable: Teaching Online in the Age of COVID-19.” Journal of American Studies 55.1 (2021). 18 Jan. 2021. Web. 11 Sept. 2022.

37 Floyd, Mary Faith, The Nereid. Macon, GA: J. W. Burke, 1871. Print.

38 Foucault, Michel. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. 1973. Trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Vintage, 1994. Print.

39 ---. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1: The Will to Knowledge. Trans. Robert Hurley. 1976. London: Penguin, 2008. Print.

40 Frankema, Ewout, and Heidi Tworek. “Pandemics that Changed the World: Historical Reflections on COVID-19.” Journal of Global History 15.3 (2020): 333-35. JSTOR 13 Nov. 2020.

41 Gessner, Ingrid, and Uwe Küchler, eds. Digital Pedagogy in American Studies. Spec. issue of American Studies Journal 70 (2020). Web. 11 Sept. 2022.

42 Gonsalves, Gregg, and Peter Staley. “Panic, Paranoia, and Public Health—The AIDS Epidemic’s Lessons for Ebola.” New England Journal of Medicine 371.25 (2014): 2348-49. Web. 11 Sept. 2022.

43 Haas, Astrid. Stages of Agency: The Contribution of American Drama to the AIDS Discourse. Heidelberg: Winter, 2011. Print.

44 Halliwell, Martin. American Health Crisis: One Hundred Years of Panic, Planning, and Politics. Berkeley: U of California P, 2021. Print.

45 Haramis, Nick. “Resurrecting the Forgotten Art of the AIDS Era.” The New York Times Style Magazine. New York Times, 17 Aug. 2022. Web. 29 Sept. 2022.

46 Harper, Frances. Iola Leroy, or, Shadows Uplifted. 1892. Ontario: Broadview, 2018. Print.

47 Haupt, Jennifer, ed. Alone Together: Love, Grief, and Comfort in the Time of COVID-19. New York: Central Avenue, 2020. Print.

48 “HIV Statistics Overview (International Statistics).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. Web. 1 Sept. 2022.

49 Honigsbaum, Mark. The Pandemic Century: One Hundred Years of Panic, Hysteria, and Hubris. London: Hurst, 2019. Print.

50 Humphreys, Margaret. Yellow Fever and the South. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 1999. Print.

51 Kraut, Alan M. Silent Travelers: Germs, Genes, and the Immigrant Menace. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 1994. Print.

52 Kushner, Tony. Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes. Part I: Millennium Approaches. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1991. Print.

53 ---. Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes. Part II: Perestroika. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1992. Print.

54 Leith, Sam. “Our Country Friends by Gary Shteyngart Review: Lockdown Tragicomedy.” The Guardian. Guardian Media Group, 26 Jan. 2022. Web. 10 Sept. 2022.

55 Llosa, Mario Vargas. “A Return to the Middle Ages?” And We Came Outside and Saw the Stars Again: Writers from around the World on the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ed. Ilan Stavans. Brooklyn, NY: Restless, 2020. 13-17. Print.

56 Ma, Ling. Severance. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2018. Print.

57 Mbembe, Achille. “Necropolitics.” Public Culture 15.1 (2003): 11-40. Print.

58 Melville, Herman. Billy Budd, Benito Cereno, and Bartleby the Scrivener. New York: Chelsea House, 1996. Print.

59 ---. Typee, Omoo, Mardi, Moby Dick, White Jacket, Israel Potter, Redburn. New York: Tudor, 1931. Print.

60 Morgan, Nina, ed. “Special Forum: COVID-19 Commentary.” The Journal of Transnational American Studies 11.2 (2020). Web. 11 Sept. 2022.

61 Nünning, Ansgar, and Vera Nünning. “Konkurrierende Krisengeschichten der Corona-Pandemie: ‘Kampf der Narrative,’ Gegenwartsdiagnosen, epistemologische Krise und Kritik von Lebensformen?” Germanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift 70.3-4 (2020): 445-93. Print.

62 O’Hara, John. “The Doctor’s Son.” 1935. Selected Short Stories. 2003. By O’Hara. London: Vintage, 2018. 141-73. Print.

63 Outka, Elizabeth. “‘Wood for the Coffins Ran Out’: Modernism and the Shadowed Afterlife of the Pandemic.” Modernism / Modernity 21.4 (2014): 937-60. Web. 29 Sept. 2022.

64 Patterson, K. David. “Yellow Fever Epidemics and Mortality in the United States, 1693-1905.” Social Science & Medicine 34.8 (1992): 855-65. Print.

65 Pernick, Martin S. “Contagion and Culture.” American Literary History 14.4 (2002): 858-65. Print.

66 Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart. “Zerviah Hope.” Scribner’s Monthly Nov. 1880: 78-88. Print.

67 Pierce, John R., and Jim Writer. Yellow Jack: How Yellow Fever Ravaged America and Walter Reed Discovered Its Deadly Secrets. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Print.

68 Poe, Edgar Allan, The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket and Related Tales. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print. Oxford World’s Classics.

69 Porter, Katherine Anne. “Pale Horse, Pale Rider.” Pale Horse, Pale Rider: Selected Short Stories. 1937. London: Penguin, 2011. 314-63. Print.

70 Pozorski, Aimée, Jennifer J. Lavoie, and Christine J. Cynn, eds. Literary and Visual Representations of HIV/AIDS: Forty Years Later. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2020. Print.

71 Ramenofsky, Ann F., Alicia K. Wilbur, and Anne C. Stone. “Native American Disease History: Past, Present and Future Directions.” World Archaeology 35.2 (2003): 241-57. Print.

72 Reizenstein, Ludwig von. The Mysteries of New Orleans. Ed. Steven W. Rowan. 1854-1856. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 2002. Print. The Longfellow Series of American Languages and Literatures.

73 Rosenberg, Charles E. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. 1962. Chicago, IL: U of Chicago P, 2009. Print.

74 ---. “What Is an Epidemic? AIDS in Historical Perspective.” Daedalus 118.2 (1989): 1-17. JSTOR. Web. 2 Oct. 2020.

75 Ryan, J. Michael, ed. COVID-19. 2 vols. New York: Routledge, 2021. Print.

76 Samuels, Shirley. Reading the American Novel, 1780-1865. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print. Reading the Novel.

77 Scott, A. O. “‘Bohemian Rhapsody’ Review: Another One Bites the Dust.” New York Times. New York Times, 30 Oct. 2018. Web. 10 Sept. 2022.

78 Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. 1987. New York: Souvenir, 2011. Print.

79 Sleeper, John Sherburne. Jack in the Forecastle, or, Incidents in the Early Life of Hawser Martingale. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee, 1860. Print.

80 Smith, Zadie. Intimations: Six Essays. London: Penguin, 2020. Print.

81 Sontag, Susan. AIDS and Its Metaphors. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989. Print.

82 Souvestre, Émile. The Isle of the Dead, or, The Keeper of the Lazaretto. London: Burns & Lambert, 1863. Print.

83 Stavans, Ilan, ed. And We Came Outside and Saw the Stars Again: Writers from around the World on the COVID-19 Pandemic. Brooklyn, NY: Restless, 2020. Print.

84 Stegbauer, Christian, and Iris Clemens, eds. Corona-Netzwerke: Gesellschaft im Zeichen des Virus. Wiesbaden: Springer, 2020. Print.

85 Steinberg, Emily. “Ring the Bells.” COVID Chronicles: A Comics Anthology. Ed. Kendra Boileau and Rich Johnson. University Park, PA: Graphic Mundi, 2021. 22-30. Print.

86 Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1856. Print.

87 ---. Uncle Tom’s Cabin or, Life among the Lowly. 1852. Cambridge, MA: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 2009. Print.

88 Streeruwitz, Marlene. So ist die Welt geworden: Der COVID-19 Roman. Frankfurt: Fischer, 2020. Print.

89 Thucydides. The Peloponnesian War. Trans. Steven Lattimore. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1998. Print.

90 Tillman, Lynne. “Plague Days.” And We Came Outside and Saw the Stars Again: Writers from around the World on the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ed. Ilan Stavans. Brooklyn, NY: Restless, 2020. 134-36. Print.

91 Tomes, Nancy. “‘Destroyer and Teacher’: Managing the Masses during the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic.” Public Health Reports 125.3 (2010): 48-62. Web. 29 Sept. 2022.

92 Treichler, Paula L. How to Have Theory in an Epidemic: Cultural Chronicles of AIDS. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1999. Print.

93 Tremblay, Paul. Survivor Song. New York: Morrow, 2020. Print.

94 Völkl, Yvonne, et al. “Corona Fictions.” Project Website. University of Graz, 2022. Web. 29 Sept. 2022.

95 Vogel, Paula. The Baltimore Waltz and Other Plays. 1992. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1996. Print.

96 Wald, Priscilla. Contagious: Cultures, Carriers, and the Outbreak Narrative. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2008. Print.

97 Wang, Weike. Joan Is Okay. New York: Random House, 2022. Print.

98 Warner, Chanelle. The Pragmatics of Literary Testimony: Authenticity Effects in German Social Autobiographies. New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.

99 Wells, Ida B. Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells. Ed. Alfreda M. Duster. Chicago, IL: U of Chicago P, 1970. Print.

100 ---. The Memphis Diary of Ida B. Wells. Ed. Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1995. Print.

101 Wilkes, Ally. “Rev. of Survivor Song by Paul Tremblay.” Sublime Horror 4 July 2020. Web. 29 Sept. 2022.

102 Wiseman, Ellen Marie. The Orphan Collector. New York: Kensington, 2020. Print.

103 Wright, Lawrence. The Plague Year: America in the Time of Covid. New York: Borzoi, 2021. Print.

104 Yellow Horse, Aggie J., Karen L. Leong, and Karen Kuo, eds. Viral Racisms. Spec. issue of Journal of Asian American Studies 23.3 (2020). Print.

105 Yu, Charles. “Systems.” The Decameron Project: 29 New Stories from the Pandemic. Ed. The New York Times Magazine. New York: Scribner, 2020. 171-82. Print.


Export Citation