Libertarian Welfare: The Concept of an Unconditional Basic Income in U.S. Public Debate and Policy, 1960-1972
Seiten 635 - 650
This publication is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives 4.0.
This paper focuses on intellectual debates and policy proposals in the United States during the 1960s and early 1970s. Various forms of a guaranteed income, including concepts of an unconditional basic income and a negative income tax, were discussed by intellectuals, economists, and civil rights advocates. After 1969, the Nixon administration considered introducing a negative income tax as an income floor for two-parent families without a means test or work requirements. At the time, such a radical policy was discussed in an open debate that may seem surprising today. While libertarian conservatives appreciated the proposal’s efficiency and restraining effect on government, progressives cherished the prospect of alleviating poverty. The problem was that Nixon, seeking to sell his policy to limited constituencies, denied or ignored his own proposal’s progressive core and instead advanced a racialized perception of welfare policy. The failure of guaranteed-income proposals in the early 1970s ossified a normative commitment to work-derived income that remains in place today.
1 Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition: A Study of the Central Dilemmas Facing Modern Man. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1959. Print.
2 Bix, Amy Sue. Inventing Ourselves Out of Jobs? America’s Debate over Technological Unemployment, 1929-1981. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 2000. Print.
3 Block, Fred, and Margaret Somers. “In the Shadow of Speenhamland: Social Policy and the Old Poor Law.” Politics & Society 31.2 (2003): 283-323. SAGE. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0032329203252272.
4 Brown, Wendy. Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. Brooklyn, NY: Zone, 2015. Print.
5 Casselman, Ben. “Job Growth Gives the Economy an Upbeat Start to the Year.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 7 Feb. 2020. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/07/business/january-jobs-report.html.
6 Chappell, Marisa. The War on Welfare: Family, Poverty, and Politics in Modern America. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2010. Print.
7 Clark, Gregory. A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2007. Print.
8 Dahrendorf, Ralf. “Economic Opportunity, Civil Society and Political Liberty.” United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. UNRISD, 1 Mar. 1995. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. https://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/search/AF2130DF646281DD80256B67005B66F9.
9 ---. “Ein garantiertes Mindesteinkommen als konstitutionelles Anrecht.” Befreiung von falscher Arbeit: Thesen zum garantierten Mindesteinkommen. Ed. Thomas Schmid. Berlin: Klaus Wagenbach, 1986. 131-36. Print.
10 ---. “Wenn der Arbeitsgesellschaft die Arbeit ausgeht.” Verhandlungen des Deutschen Soziologentages in Bamberg. Ed. Joachim Matthes. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1983. 25-37. Print.
11 Davies, Gareth. From Opportunity to Entitlement: The Transformation and Decline of Great Society Liberalism. Lawrence: UP of Kansas. 1996. Print.
12 Frey, Carl Benedict. The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and Power in the Age of Automation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2019. Print.
13 Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago, IL: U of Chicago P, 1962. Print.
14 ---. “The Case for the Negative Income Tax: A View from the Right.” Proceedings of the National Symposium on Guaranteed Income. Ed. United States Chamber of Commerce. Washington, DC: United States Chamber of Commerce, 1966. 49-55. Print.
15 Galbraith, John Kenneth. The Affluent Society. London: Penguin, 1958. Print.
16 ---. The Affluent Society. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1969. 2nd ed. Print.
17 Gentilini, Ugo, et al. “Exploring Universal Basic Income: A Guide to Navigating Concepts, Evidence, and Practices.” The World Bank. World Bank Group, 26 Nov. 2019. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. https://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/993911574784667955/Exploring-Universal-Basic-Income-A-Guide-to-Navigating-Concepts-Evidence-and-Practices.
18 Hamill, Peter. “The Revolt of the White Lower Middle Class.” New York. Vox Media, 14 Apr. 1969. Web. 11. Aug. 2021. https://nymag.com/news/features/46801/.
19 Keynes, John Maynard. “Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren.” Essays in Persuasion. 1931. Cham: Springer Nature, 2010. 321-32. Print.
20 King, Martin Luther, Jr. Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? New York: Harper, 1967. Internet Archive. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. http://archive.org/details/wheredowegofromh00king.
21 Laurent, Sylvie, and William Julius Wilson. King and the Other America: The Poor People’s Campaign and the Quest for Economic Equality. Berkeley: U of California P, 2019. Print.
22 Lenkowsky, Leslie. Politics, Economics, and Welfare Reform: The Failure of the Negative Income Tax in Britain and the United States. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1986. Print.
23 Lepore, Jill. “The Robot Caravan: Automation, A. I., and the Coming Invasion.” The New Yorker 4 Mar. 2019: 20-24. Print.
24 Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The German Ideology, Part One. Ed. C. J. Arthur. New York: International Publishers, 1972. Internet Archive. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. http://archive.org/details/germanideology00marx.
25 Mudge, Stephanie L. Leftism Reinvented: Western Parties from Socialism to Neoliberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2018. Print.
26 O’Connor, Alice. “The False Dawn of Poor-Law Reform: Nixon, Carter, and the Quest for a Guaranteed Income.” Journal of Policy History 10.1 (1998): 99-129. Cambridge Core, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0898030600005546.
27 Patterson, James T. America’s Struggle against Poverty, 1900-1994. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1995. Print.
28 Pauling, Linus, et al. The Triple Revolution. Santa Barbara, CA: The Ad Hoc Committee on the Triple Revolution, 1964. Special Collections & Archives Center, Oregon State University Libraries, http://scarc.library.oregonstate.edu/coll/pauling/peace/papers/1964p.7-01.html.
29 Rodgers, Daniel T. Age of Fracture. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2010. Print.
30 Schmidtke, Oliver. Ideal und Ironie der Gesellschaft: Die “Utopia” des Thomas Morus. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 2016. Print.
31 Sloman, Peter. Transfer State: The Idea of a Guaranteed Income and the Politics of Redistribution in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2019. Print.
32 Steensland, Brian. The Failed Welfare Revolution: America’s Struggle over Guaranteed Income Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2009. Print.
33 Stigler, George J. “The Economics of Minimum Wage Legislation.” The American Economic Review 36.3 (1946): 358-65. Print.
34 Theobald, Robert. Free Men and Free Markets. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1963. Internet Archive. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. http://archive.org/details/freemenfreemarke0000unse.
35 Whaples, Robert. “Hours of Work in U.S. History.” EH.Net. Economic History Association, 14 Aug. 2001. Web. 11 Aug. 2021. https://eh.net/encyclopedia/hours-of-work-in-u-s-history/.
36 Yang, Andrew. The War on Normal People: The Truth about America’s Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future. London: Hachette UK, 2018. Print.