Skip to content

Introduction: (Re)Considering American Eugenics

Simon Strick

Pages 165 - 188



This publication is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives 4.0. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

1 Adams, Mark B., ed. The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia. New York: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.

2 Ahmed, Sara. “Progressive Racism.” Web blog post. Feminist Killjoys, 30 May 2016. Web. 4 Dec. 2019.

3 Allen, Garland E. “The Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, 1910-1940: An Essay in Institutional History.” Osiris 2 (1986): 225-64. Print.

4 Annamma, Subini Ancy, David Connor, and Beth Ferri. “Dis/ability Critical Race Studies (DisCrit): Theorizing at the Intersections of Race and Dis/ability.” Race Ethnicity and Education 16.1 (2013): 1-31. Print.

5 Asch, Adrienne, and Michelle Fine. “Shared Dreams: A Left Perspective on Disability Rights and Reproductive Rights.” Women with Disabilities: Essays in Psychology, Culture, and Politics. Ed. Michelle Fine. Philadelphia, PA: Temple UP, 2009. 297-305. Print.

6 Baker, Bernadette. “The Hunt for Disability: The New Eugenics and the Normalization of School Children.” Teachers College Record 104.4 (2002): 663-703. Print.

7 Barr, Martin W. Mental Defectives, Their History, Treatment and Training. Philadelphia, PA: Blakiston’s Son & Company, 1910. Print.

8 Bashford, Alison, and Philippa Levine, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. New York: Oxford UP, 2010. Print.

9 Baynton, Douglas C. “‘These pushful days’: Time and Disability in the Age of Eugenics.” Health and History 13.2 (2011): 43-64. Print.

10 ---. Defectives in the Land: Disability and Immigration in the Age of Eugenics. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2016. Print.

11 Benlloch, Vincent. “‘Those for Whom This Civilization Has No Place’: Reading Eugenics in Of Mice and Men.” Steinbeck Review 16.1 (2019): 74-91. Print.

12 Berlant, Lauren. “Slow Death (Sovereignty, Obesity, Lateral Agency).” Critical Inquiry 33.4 (2007): 754-80. Print.

13 Block, Pamela. “Sexuality, Fertility, and Danger: Twentieth-Century Images of Women with Cognitive Disabilities.” Sexuality and Disability 18.4 (2000): 239-54. Print.

14 Boas, Franz. “Eugenics.” The Scientific Monthly 3.5 (1916): 471-78. Print.

15 Boyer, Paul, et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, Volume II: Since 1865. 8th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

16 Brantlinger, Ellen A. Sterilization of People with Mental Disabilities: Issues, Perspectives, and Cases. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing, 1995. Print.

17 Burgett, Bruce, and Glenn Hendler, eds. Keywords for American Cultural Studies. New York: New York UP, 2014. Print.

18 Carter, Julian B. The Heart of Whiteness: Normal Sexuality and Race in America, 1880-1940. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2007. Print.

19 Chen, Mel Y. “Unpacking Intoxication, Racialising Disability.” Medical Humanities 41.1 (2015): 25-29. Print.

20 Chopin, Kate. “Mrs. Mobry’s Reason.” The Complete Works of Kate Chopin. Ed. Per Seyersted. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2006. 71-79. Print.

21 Cogdell, Christina. Eugenic Design: Streamlining America in the 1930s. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2010. Print.

22 Cohen, Adam. Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American Eugenics, and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck. London: Penguin, 2017. Print.

23 Cuddy, Lois A., and Claire M. Roche, eds. Evolution and Eugenics in American Literature and Culture, 1880-1940. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 2012. Print.

24 Currell, Susan, and Christina Cogdell, eds. Popular Eugenics: National Efficiency and American Mass Culture in the 1930s. Athens: Ohio UP, 2006. Print.

25 Davis, Lennard J. Enforcing Normalcy: Disability, Deafness, and the Body. New York: Verso, 1995. Print.

26 Dikötter, Frank. “Race Culture: Recent Perspectives on the History of Eugenics.” The American Historical Review 103.2 (1998): 467-78. Print.

27 Dillingham Commission. Dictionary of Races or Peoples [Serial set no. 5867, Senate document 662, session 61-3, session date: 1910, 1911]. Reports of the Immigration Commission. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1911. Print.

28 Dolmage, Jay. “Disabled upon Arrival: The Rhetorical Construction of Disability and Race at Ellis Island.” Cultural Critique 77.1 (2011): 24-69. Print.

29 Dowbiggin, Ian Robert. Keeping America Sane: Psychiatry and Eugenics in the United States and Canada, 1880-1940. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1997. Print.

30 Down, J. Langdon. “Observations on an Ethnic Classification of Idiots.” London Hospital Reports 3 (1866): 259-62. Print.

31 Doyle, Laura. “The Long Arm of Eugenics.” American Literary History 16.3 (2004): 520-35. Print.

32 Dye, J. H. Painless Childbirth; Or Healthy Mothers and Healthy Children. Silver Creek, NY: The Local Printing House, 1882. Print.

33 English, Daylanne K. Unnatural Selections: Eugenics in American Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2004. Print.

34 Erevelles, Nirmala. Disability and Difference in Global Contexts: Enabling a Transformative Body Politic. New York: Springer, 2011. Print.

35 ---, and Andrea Minear. “Unspeakable Offenses: Untangling Race and Disability in Discourses of Intersectionality.” Journal of Literary and Cultural Disability Studies 4.2 (2010): 127-45. Print.

36 Freilla, Omar. “Burying Robert Moses’s Legacy in New York City.” Highway Robbery: Transportation Racism and New Routes to Equity. Ed. Robert Bullard, Glenn Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2004. 75-99. Print.

37 Galton, Francis. Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development. London: Macmillan and Co., 1883. Print.

38 ---. “Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope, and Aims.” American Journal of Sociology 10.1 (1904): 1-25. Print.

39 Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Welcoming the Unbidden: The Case for Conserving Human Biodiversity.” What Democracy Looks Like: A New Critical Realism for a Post-Seattle World. Ed. Amy Schrager Lang and Cecelia Tichi. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2006. 77-87. Print.

40 ---, ed. Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. New York: New York UP, 1996. Print.

41 Goddard, Henry Herbert. The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness. New York: Macmillan Co., 1912. Print.

42 Goodley, Dan, Rebecca Lawthom, and Katherine Runswick-Cole. “Dis/ability and Austerity: Beyond Work and Slow Death.” Disability and Society 29:6 (2014): 980-84. Print.

43 Grant, Madison. The Passing of the Great Race: Or, The Racial Basis of European History. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1916. Print.

44 Hansen, Randall, and Desmond King. Sterilized by the State: Eugenics, Race, and the Population Scare in Twentieth-Century North America. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2013. Print.

45 Heinemann, Isabel. “Preserving the Family and the Nation: Eugenic Masculinity Concepts, Expert Intervention, and the American Family in the United States, 1900-1960.” Masculinities and the Nation in the Modern World. Ed. Pablo Dominguez Andersen and Simon Wendt. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. 71-92. Print.

46 Higham, John. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925. 1955. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2002. Print.

47 Hofstadter, Richard. Social Darwinism in American Thought. 1946. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1992. Print.

48 Holmes, Kwame. “Necrocapitalism, or the Value of Black Death.” Web blog post. Bully Bloggers, 24 July 2017. Web. 4 Dec. 2019.

49 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, and Supreme Court of the United States. U.S. Reports: Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200, 2 May 1927. 5 Nov. 2018. Web. 4 Dec. 2019.

50 Hubbard, Ruth. “Abortion and Disability: Who Should and Who Should Not Inhabit the World.” The Disability Studies Reader. 2nd ed. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. London: Routledge, 2006. 93-104. Print.

51 Jarman, Michelle. “Dismembering the Lynch Mob: Intersecting Narratives of Disability, Race, and Sexual Menace.” Sex and Disability. Ed. Robert McRuer and Anna Mollow. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2012. 89-107. Print.

52 Kevles, Daniel J. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995. Print.

53 Kirkbridge, Franklin. “The Right to Be Well-Born.” Survey 28.18 (1912): 1838-39. Print.

54 Kline, Wendy. Building a Better Race: Gender, Sexuality, and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom. Berkeley: U of California P, 2001. Print.

55 Kluchin, Rebecca M. Fit to Be Tied: Sterilization and Reproductive Rights in America, 1950-1980. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2011. Print.

56 Kuhl, Stefan. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. Print.

57 Ladd-Taylor, Molly. Fixing the Poor: Eugenic Sterilization and Child Welfare in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 2017. Print.

58 ---. “Saving Babies and Sterilizing Mothers: Eugenics and Welfare Politics in the Interwar United States.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 4.1 (1997): 136-53. Print.

59 ---. “Eugenics, Sterilisation and Modern Marriage in the USA: The Strange Career of Paul Popenoe.” Gender and History 13.2 (2001): 298-327. Print.

60 Lemke, Thomas. “From Eugenics to the Government of Genetic Risks.” Genetic Governance: Health, Risk and Ethics in a Biotech Era. Ed. Robin Bunton and Alan Petersen. London: Routledge, 2005. 96-106. Print.

61 Leonard, Thomas C. Illiberal Reformers: Race, Eugenics, and American Economics in the Progressive Era. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2016. Print.

62 Lippman, Abby. “Eugenics and Public Health.” American Journal of Public Health 93.1 (2003): 11. Print.

63 Lombardo, Paul A. “Pedigrees, Propaganda, and Paranoia: Family Studies in a Historical Context.” Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 21.4 (2001): 247-55. Print.

64 Lombroso, Cesare. Criminal Man. 1876. Ed. Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006. Print.

65 Longmore, Paul K., and Lauri Umansky, eds. The New Disability History: American Perspectives. New York: New York UP, 2001. Print.

66 Luczak, Ewa Barbara. Breeding and Eugenics in the American Literary Imagination: Heredity Rules in the Twentieth Century. New York: Springer, 2016. Print.

67 Ludmerer, Kenneth M. “American Geneticists and the Eugenics Movement: 1905-1935.” Journal of the History of Biology 2.2 (1969): 337-62. Print.

68 Macey, David. “Rethinking Biopolitics, Race and Power in the Wake of Foucault.” Theory, Culture & Society 26.6 (2009): 186-205. Print.

69 Markel, Howard, and Alexandra Minna Stern. “Which Face? Whose Nation?” American Behavioral Scientist 42.9 (1999): 1314-31. Print.

70 Maxwell, Anne. Perfecting Mankind: Eugenics and Photography. New York: International Center of Photography, 2001. Print.

71 Mitchell, David, and Sharon Snyder. “The Eugenic Atlantic: Race, Disability, and the Making of an International Eugenic Science, 1800-1945.” Disability & Society 18.7 (2003): 843-64. Print.

72 ---. The Biopolitics of Disability: Neoliberalism, Ablenationalism, and Peripheral Embodiment. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 2015. Print.

73 ---, eds. Cultural Locations of Disability. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2006. Print.

74 Nagel, Joane. “Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 21.2 (1998): 242-69. Print.

75 Ngai, Mae M. “The Architecture of Race in American Immigration Law: A Reexamination of the Immigration Act of 1924.” The Journal of American History 86.1 (1999): 67-92. Print.

76 Nielsen, Kim E. A Disability History of the United States. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2012. Print.

77 Noll, Steven, and James Trent, eds. Mental Retardation in America: A Historical Reader. New York: New York UP, 2004. Print.

78 Ooten, Melissa, and Sarah Trembanis. “Filming Eugenics: Teaching the History of Eugenics Through Film.” The Public Historian 29.3 (2007): 145-55. Print.

79 Ordover, Nancy. American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2003. Print.

80 Parrinder, Patrick. “Eugenics and Utopia: Sexual Selection from Galton to Morris.” Utopian Studies 8.2 (1997): 1-12. Print.

81 Pease, Donald E., and Robyn Wiegman, eds. The Futures of American Studies. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2002. Print.

82 Pernick, Martin S. “Eugenics and Public Health in American History.” American Journal of Public Health 87.11 (1997): 1767-72. Print.

83 ---. The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of “Defective” Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures since 1915. New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Print.

84 Puar, Jasbir K. The Right to Maim: Debility, Capacity, Disability. Durham NC: Duke UP, 2017. Print.

85 Radford, John P. “Eugenics and the Asylum.” Journal of Historical Sociology 7.4 (1994): 462-73. Print.

86 Rafter, Nicole Hahn, ed. White Trash: The Eugenic Family Studies, 1877-1919. Boston, MA: Northeastern UP, 1988. Print.

87 ---. “The Criminalization of Mental Retardation.” Mental Retardation in America: A Historical Reader. Ed. Steven Noll and James Trent. New York: New York UP, 2004. 232-57. Print.

88 Reilly, Philip. The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 1991. Print.

89 Rembis, Michael A. Defining Deviance: Sex, Science, and Delinquent Girls, 1890-1960. Champaign: U of Illinois P, 2011. Print.

90 Rydell, Robert W. “The Proximity of the Past: Eugenics in American Culture.” Modern Intellectual History 7.3 (2010): 667-78. Print.

91 Samuels, Ellen. Fantasies of Identification: Disability, Gender, Race. New York: New York UP, 2014. Print.

92 Schweik, Susan M. The Ugly Laws: Disability in Public. New York: New York UP, 2009. Print.

93 Seguin, Edward. Idiocy: And Its Treatment by the Physiological Method. New York: W. Wood & Co., 1866. Print.

94 Selden, Steven. “Transforming Better Babies into Fitter Families: Archival Resources and the History of the American Eugenics Movement, 1908-1930.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (2005): 199-225. Print.

95 Seitler, Dana. “Unnatural Selection: Mothers, Eugenic Feminism, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Regeneration Narratives.” American Quarterly 55.1 (2003): 61-88. Print.

96 Siebers, Tobin. “Disability and the Theory of Complex Embodiment: For Identity Politics in a New Register.” The Disability Studies Reader. 5th ed. Ed. Lennard Davis. New York: Routledge, 2016. 313-32. Print.

97 Singleton, Marilyn. “The ‘Science’ of Eugenics: America’s Moral Detour.” Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 19.4 (2014): 122-26. Print.

98 Smith, Angela. Hideous Progeny: Disability, Eugenics, and Classic Horror Cinema. New York: Columbia UP, 2012. Print.

99 Smith, Anna Marie. “Neo-Eugenics: A Feminist Critique of Agamben.” Occasion: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities 2 (2010): 1-12. Print.

100 Soper, Kerry. “Classical Bodies versus the Criminal Carnival.” Popular Eugenics: National Efficiency and American Mass Culture in the 1930s. Ed. Susan Currell and Christina Cogdell. Athens: Ohio UP, 2006. 271-74. Print.

101 Stepan, Nancy Leys. The Hour of Eugenics: Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1991. Print.

102 Stephens, Elizabeth, and Peter Cryle. “Eugenics and the Normal Body: The Role of Visual Images and Intelligence Testing in Framing the Treatment of People with Disabilities in the Early Twentieth Century.” Continuum 31.3 (2017): 365-76. Print.

103 Stern, Alexandra Minna. Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America. Berkeley: U of California P, 2015. Print.

104 Stillwell, Devon. “Eugenics Visualized: The Exhibit of the Third International Congress of Eugenics, 1932.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 86.2 (2012): 206-36. Print.

105 Strick, Simon. American Dolorologies: Pain, Sentimentalism, Biopolitics. Albany: SUNY P, 2014. Print.

106 Stubblefield, Anna. “Beyond the Pale: Tainted Whiteness, Cognitive Disability, and Eugenic Sterilization.” Hypatia 22.2 (2007): 162-81. Print.

107 Sze, Julie. Noxious New York: The Racial Politics of Urban Health and Environmental Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006. Print.

108 Thomson, Mathew. “Disability, Psychiatry, and Eugenics.” The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. Ed. Alison Bashford and Phillipa Levine. New York: Oxford UP, 2010. 116-34. Print.

109 Tichenor, Daniel J. Dividing Lines: The Politics of Immigration Control in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2009. Print.

110 Trent, James W. Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States. Berkeley: U of California P, 1994. Print.

111 United States, Congress. “Immigration Act: An Act to Regulate the Immigration of Aliens to, and the Residence of Aliens in, the United States.” The Statutes at Large of the United States of America, from December 1915 to March 1917. Vol. 39. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1917. 64th Congress. 2nd session. Ch. 29. 874-98. Web. 7 Jan. 2020.

112 Waldschmidt, Anne. “Normalcy, Bio-Politics and Disability: Some Remarks on the German Disability Discourse.” Disability Studies Quarterly 26.2 (2006). Web. 4 Dec. 2019.

113 Wickham, Parnel. “Idiocy in Virginia, 1616-1860.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine (2006): 677-701. Print.

114 Williamson, Shaun. “Trans-Atlantic Connection: The Link between American and Nazi Eugenics.” Mount Royal Undergraduate Humanities Review 3 (2015): 102-11. Print.

115 Wolff, Tamsen. Mendel’s Theatre: Heredity, Eugenics, and Early Twentieth-Century American Drama. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.


Export Citation